This section presents some examples of use of the Library.

3D Deconvolution

We consider the C. elegans embryo real dataset (\(672 \times 712 \times 104 \)) which can be downloaded here and which is presented on Fig. 1. This sample contains three kind of structures:

  • chromosomes in the nuclei (DAPI Channel - blue)
  • point-wise spots (CY3 Channel - red)
  • microtubules (FITC channel - green)

The PSF for each channel, generated from a theoretical model, are also provided here. In the following, each channel is deconvolved separately using the same code presented below.

C. Elegans embryo

Fig 1. C. Elegans embryo. Three kind of structures: chromosomes in the nuclei (blue), microtubules (green) and a protein stained with CY3 (red).

We start by reading the data

%% Reading data

We then resize the PSF in order to properly deal with the periodic assumption of the FFT (principally in z where the data are present on boundaries of the volume). Note that we use the function fft_best_dim (Util/ folder) which allows to find sizes that are suited for efficient FFT operations.


We can now define our data fidelity term, TV regularization and positivity constraint.

%% Least-Suares Data Fidelity Term
H=LinOpConv(fftn(fftshift(psf)));                      % Convolution Operator
S=LinOpSelectorPatch(sznew,halfPad+1,sznew-halfPad);   % Selector Operator
L2=CostL2(S.sizeout,y);                                % L2 cost function
LS=L2*S;                                               % Least-Sqaures data term
%% TV Regularization
Freg=CostMixNorm21([sznew,3],4);      % TV regularizer: Mixed Norm 2-1
Opreg=LinOpGrad(sznew);               % TV regularizer: Operator Gradient
lamb=2e-6;                            % Regularization parameter
%% Positivity constraint
pos=CostNonNeg(sznew);                % Non-Negativity: Indicator function
Id=LinOpIdentity(sznew);              % Identity Operator

Here, our cost function is as follows $$ \mathcal{C}(\mathrm{x}) = \frac12 \|\mathrm{SHx - y} \|_2^2 + \lambda \|\nabla \mathrm{x} \|_{2,1} + i_{\geq 0}(\mathrm{x})$$ where \(\lambda >0\) is the regularization parameter, \(\mathrm{S}\) a selector operator that selects the “non-padded” part of the convolution result \(\mathrm{Hx}\) and the two others terms are respectively the TV regularization and the positivity constraint. We are now ready to instanciate and run our algorithm (here ADMM) in order to minimize the above functional.

maxIt=300;                     % Maximal number of iterations
Fn={LS,lamb*Freg,pos};         % Functionals F_n constituting the cost
Hn={H,Opreg,Id};               % Associated operators H_n
rho_n=[1e-3,1e-3,1e-3];        % Multipliers rho_n

Note that here we do not need to give a solver to the ADMM algorithm (5th argument) since the library operator algebra makes that building the operator $$\rho_1 \mathrm{H^*H} + \rho_2 \nabla^* \nabla + \rho_3 \mathrm{I}$$ results in a LinOpConv which is invertible. Hence ADMM builds this operator automatically and uses its inverse for the quadratic step of the algorithm.

The deconvolved image is presented in Fig. 2.

Deconvolution result.

Fig 2. Deconvolution result of the C. Elegans embryo.