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Multiscale Motion Mapping—In Vivo Results

Multiscale Motion Mapping was applied to a series of clinical echocardiograms that were acquired during routine examinations. A few illustrative examples are shown below to reveal the algorithm’s potential to highlight different aspects of cardiac motion and to detect and quantify wall motion abnormalities.
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Apical Short Axis View Echocardiogram (SAX AP)
A typical echocardiogram of an apical short axis view and its corresponding estimated motion field are shown in Fig. 1(a) and (b), respectively. The counter-clockwise rotational twisting during early systole and clockwise twisting during early diastole are well documented by the motion vectors. Radial inward and outward motion are reflected by the red and blue color maps in Fig. 1(c). The colors represent the radial velocity component with respect to the ventricular center. Myocardial wall thickening accompanied by circumferential shortening during systole and the corresponding reverse deformation during diastole are indicated by the deformation map in Fig. 1(d).
a) Original Sequence b) Estimated Velocity Field
c) Color-Coded Radial Velocity d) Estimated Strain Rate
Figure 1: Typical echocardiogram from apical short axis view.
 
Apical Four-Chamber View Echocardiogram
Fig. 2(a) shows one echocardiogram for which local cardiologists have initially not agreed about their findings. The motion vectors that are superimposed at selected positions document that longitudinal contraction towards the apex is almost not existent. The paradoxical synchronous motion of the septal and lateral wall is highlighted well by the motion vectors. Separate analysis of radial (c) and longitudinal motion (d) shows impaired longitudinal velocities but normal radial velocities (lateral wall). The estimated deformation map (b) shows normal septal wall thickening and thinning.
a) Velocity vectors at selected positions b) Estimated Strain Rate
c) Radial velocity component of (a) d) Longitudinal velocity component of (a)
Figure 2: Paradoxical motion in apical four-chamber view.