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Three Machine Learning Techniques for Automatic Determination of Rules to Control Locomotion

S. Jonić, T. Janković, V. Gajić, D. Popović

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 300-310, March 1999.

Automatic prediction of gait events (e.g., heel contact, flat foot, initiation of the swing, etc.) and corresponding profiles of the activations of muscles is important for realtime control of locomotion. This paper presents three supervised machine learning (ML) techniques for prediction of the activation patterns of muscles and sensory data, based on the history of sensory data, for walking assisted by a functional electrical stimulation (FES). Those ML's are: 1) a multilayer perceptron with Levenberg-Marquardt modification of backpropagation learning algorithm; 2) an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); and 3) a combination of an entropy minimization type of inductive learning (IL) technique and a radial basis function (RBF) type of artificial neural network with orthogonal least squares learning algorithm. Here we show the prediction of the activation of the knee flexor muscles and the knee joint angle for seven consecutive strides based on the history of the knee joint angle and the ground reaction forces. The data used for training and testing of ML's was obtained from a simulation of walking assisted with an FES system [1]. The ability of generating rules for an FES controller was selected as the most important criterion when comparing the ML's. Other criteria such as generalization of results, computational complexity, and learning rate were also considered. The minimal number of rules and the most explicit and comprehensible rules were obtained by ANFIS. The best generalization was obtained by the IL and RBF network.


  1. D. Popović, R.B. Stein, M.N. Og˘uztöreli, M. Lebiedowska, S. Jonić, "Optimal Control of Walking with Functional Electrical Stimulation: A Computer Simulation Study," IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 69-79, March 1999.

AUTHOR="Joni{\'{c}}, S. and Jankovi{\'{c}}, T. and Gaji{\'{c}}, V.
        and Popovi{\'{c}}, D.",
TITLE="Three Machine Learning Techniques for Automatic Determination
        of Rules to Control Locomotion",
JOURNAL="{IEEE} Transactions on Biomedical Engineering",

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