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Sampling—50 Years After Shannon

M. Unser

Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 569-587, April 2000.

This paper presents an account of the current state of sampling, 50 years after Shannon's formulation of the sampling theorem. The emphasis is on regular sampling where the grid is uniform. This topic has benefited from a strong research revival during the past few years, thanks in part to the mathematical connections that were made with wavelet theory. To introduce the reader to the modern, Hilbert-space formulation, we re-interpret Shannon's sampling procedure as an orthogonal projection onto the subspace of bandlimited functions. We then extend the standard sampling paradigm for a representation of functions in the more general class of "shift-invariant" functions spaces, including splines and wavelets. Practically, this allows for simpler—and possibly more realistic—interpolation models, which can be used in conjunction with a much wider class of (anti-aliasing) pre-filters that are not necessarily ideal lowpass. We summarize and discuss the results available for the determination of the approximation error and of the sampling rate when the input of the system is essentially arbitrary; e.g., non-bandlimited. We also review variations of sampling that can be understood from the same unifying perspective. These include wavelets, multi-wavelets, Papoulis generalized sampling, finite elements, and frames. Irregular sampling and radial basis functions are briefly mentioned.

AUTHOR="Unser, M.",
TITLE="Sampling---50 {Y}ears After {S}hannon",
JOURNAL="Proceedings of the {IEEE}",

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