The deconvolution is an image processing technique that restores the effective object representation at a sub-pixel resolution. Various software packages for deconvolution are available, both commercial ones and open-source ones. They are computationally extensive requiring high-end processors and huge memory capacities. Despite the effort to provide user-friendly solutions, the deconvolution remains a challenging task in choosing the good software, the right algorithm and the correct settings.
Here, our contribution is to provide open software packages for deconvolution microscopy, 3D reference datasets and their corresponding PSF (Point Spread Function) in order to compare deconvolution, and advanced methods of deconvolution.
The remasterized Java deconvolution tool
It is freely accessible and open-source; it can be linked to well-known imaging software platforms, ImageJ, Fiji, ICY, Matlab. The backbone of our software architecture is a library that contains the number-crunching elements of the deconvolution task. The current list of built-in algorithms includes: Naive inverse filtering, Regularized inverse filtering, Landweber, Tikhonov-Miller (ICTM), Fast iterative soft-thresholding (FISTA),Richardson-Lucy, Richardson-Lucy with total-variation regularization. The source code is written in Java 1.6, as close as possible to the text-book definition of the algorithms. Inquisitive minds inclined to peruse the code will find it fosters the understanding of deconvolution.
D. Sage, L. Donati, F. Soulez, D. Fortun, G. Schmit, A. Seitz, R. Guiet, C. Vonesch, M. Unser, "DeconvolutionLab2 : An Open-Source Software for Deconvolution Microscopy" Methods, in press, 2017.
The original ImageJ deconvolution tool
DeconvolutionLab is an ImageJ plugin to deconvolve 3D images. DeconvolutionLab incorporates the most known algorithms of deconvolution with theirs parameters. Tuning these parameters could be difficult in deconvolution and may infer disappointing results. In DeconvolutionLab, these parameters can be choosen by the user or for some of them, they can be automicatilly estimated, which it is one of the main feature of DeconvolutionLab.
A Java software package to generate realistic 3D microscope Point-Spread FunctionPSF Generator is a software package that allows one to generate and visualize various 3D models of a microscope PSF. The current version has more than ten different models among them: Born & Wolf, Gibson & Lanni, and Richards & Wolf. PSF Generator is provided for several environments: as ImageJ/Fiji plugin, as an Icy plugin, and as a Java standalone application. The program requires only few parameters which are readily-available for microscopy practitioners.
H- Kirshner, F. Aguet, D. Sage, M. Unser
3-D PSF Fitting for Fluorescence Microscopy: Implementation and Localization Application
Journal of Microscopy 1, 2013.
Deconvolution - Making the Most of Fluorescence Microscopy
Deconvolution is one of the most common image-reconstruction tasks that arise in 3D fluorescence microscopy. The aim of the challenges is to benchmark existing deconvolution algorithms and to stimulate the community to look for novel, global and practical approaches to this problem. It is primarily based on realistic-looking synthetic data sets representing various sub-cellular structures. In addition it relies on a number of common and advanced performance metrics to objectively assess the quality of the results.
C. Vonesch and S. Lefkimmiatis
Summary of the ISBI 2013 Grand Challenge on 3D Deconvolution Microscopy
IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI'14), Beijing, China, 2014.
D. Sage, H. Kirshner, C. Vonesch, S. Lefkimmiatis, M. Unser
Benchmarking Image-Processing Algorithms for Biomicroscopy: Reference Datasets and Perspectives
Proceedings of EUSIPCO'13, Marrakech, Morocco, 2013.
Evaluation of 3D deconvolution software package
In modern optical microscopy and biological research deconvolution is becoming a fundamental processing step which allows for better image analysis. Deconvolution remains however a challenging task as the result depends strongly on the algorithm chosen, the parameters settings and the kinds of structures in the processed dataset. As a core facility of bio-imaging and microscopy, we aim with this study to compare the performances of different deconvolution software.
A. Griffa, N. Garin, D. Sage
Comparison of Deconvolution Software: A User Point of View—Part 2
Comparison of Deconvolution Software: A User Point of View—Part 1
G.I.T. Imaging & Microscopy 1, 2010.
This real dataset is composed of three stacks of images of a C. Elegans embryo. The deconvolution effects can be evaluated on different kinds of structures: extended objects (the chromosomes in the nuclei), filaments (the microtubules), and point-wise spots (a protein stained with CY3).
This test volume contains a fluorescent bead of known dimension—its diameter is precisely 2.5 μm. This data have the advantage of offering a simple object on which it is easy to perform a quantitative validation of the recovering of shape and dimension, before and after deconvolution.
These synthetic data consist of six parallel hollow bars. The images have been blurred using a theoretical microscopic PSF, and corrupted by Gaussian noise and Poisson noise with several signal to noise ratios (SNR = 15, 30 dB). The knowledge of the ground-truth allows one to quantatively compare the deconvolution tools.
This datasets is a realistic-looking synthetic data sets representing four sub-cellular structures: point sources, filaments, membrane, dense object. This dataset was used for the challenge on 3D deconvolution microscopy.
Recently, the concept of sparsity has attracted a lot of interest for the resolution of inverse problems. The standard algorithm for solving the corresponding L1-regularized variational problem is known as the Thresholded Landweber (TL) algorithm.
Matlab implementation: Fast Multilevel Thresholded-Landweber Deconvolution Algorithm
Our MultiLevel Thresholded Landweber (MLTL) algorithm is an accelerated version of the TL algorithm that was specifically developped for deconvolution problems with a wavelet-domain regularization. By cycling through the wavelet-subbands in a multigrid-like fashion, it achieves a substantial speed-up.
C. Vonesch, M. Unser
A Fast Multilevel Algorithm for Wavelet-Regularized Image Restoration
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 18, no. 3, March 2009.
C. Vonesch, M. Unser
A Fast Thresholded Landweber Algorithm for Wavelet-Regularized Multidimensional Deconvolution
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 17, no. 4, April 2008.
Nonquadratic Hessian-based regularization methods can be effectively used for image restoration problems in a variational framework. Motivated by the great success of the total-variation (TV) functional, we extend it to also include second-order differential operators. Specifically, we derive second-order regularizers that involve matrix norms of the Hessian operator. The definition of these functionals is based on an alternative interpretation of TV that relies on mixed norms of directional derivatives. We show that the resulting regularizers retain some of the most favorable properties of TV, i.e., convexity, homogeneity, rotation, and translation invariance, while dealing effectively with the staircase effects.
S. Lefkimmiatis, J.P. Ward, M. Unser
Hessian Schatten-Norm Regularization for Linear Inverse Problems
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 22, no. 5, May 2013.
S. Lefkimmiatis, A. Bourquard, M. Unser
Hessian-Based Norm Regularization for Image Restoration with Biomedical Applications
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 21, no. 3, March 2012.
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